“Social impact bonds” are a new financial instrument designed to support successful social and environmental programs and reduce government spending. Investors provide the initial capital for contracted service providers, and the government agrees to pay the contractors only if the program meets its goals.
Due to numerous domestic, industrial, and environmental demands for water, efficient water governance can be a complex challenge. Given that multiple exchange logics can motivate demand for water, it is unsurprising that the most democratic, efficient, and flexible governance systems are hybrids of multiple Systems of Exchange.
The “sharing economy” describes exchanges in which resources are shared rather than owned. For example, Zipcar allows customers to rent cars when they need them, and AirBnb provides a platform for people to rent unoccupied living spaces to travelers.
About thirty years ago, law professor Edgar Cahn invented a system for valuing things that are necessary for society but are often unpaid, such as companionship, neighborliness, mentorship, and community building.
Rather than fueling economic growth, development aid in many countries is exacerbating poverty and forcing countries into substantial debt. If rich countries spend so much money on development aid, why are poor countries still suffering so much?
Consumer demand for meat has increased dramatically in the last few decades, and the resulting intensification of livestock production has had dire consequences on the environment. Professor Mark Sutton from the UN Environmental Programme argues that the answer to meat-related environmental risks is to reduce Western meat consumption.
An American woman is charged $390 for all three doses of the HPV vaccine, whereas the same product goes for less than $15 in Kenya. What is the most “moral” price for these life-saving vaccines?
Higher education is often measured against Price, Moral, and Communal criteria — and the value of college ultimately depends on which exchange system we use to evaluate it.
Creative Commons is a direct challenge to the Price-based assumption that artists need a profit incentive to produce. Millions of people have already demonstrated that they want their efforts to be freely shared with the public.
Many communities in developing countries operate their own lending organizations, many of which predate the international microcredit movement. Called rotating savings and credit associations, or roscas, these organizations allow small groups of people to pool their resources for the purposes of saving and lending.
This website is a resource for social science and management researchers, instructors, and students. It provides an introduction to an analytical framework for thinking about economic action and decision-making from a sociological perspective. The materials should be of interest to economic sociologists, macro organization theorists, and people interested in corporate social responsibility debates. The SOE framework can be used to analyze policy claims, too.
The four qualitatively different ways of ordering economic exchange captured in the systems of exchange typology—-Price, Associative, Moral and Communal-—are distillations of empirical observations, rather than assumptions about how markets should work. As such, the systems of exchange typology offers an alternative way for thinking about market organization that can readily be distinguished from neoclassical economics.